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❤مجموعه اول بسته های آموزشی در کشور❤ - Lowering Blood Pressure Improves Diastolic Function
 Lowering Blood Pressure Improves Diastolic Function, Regardless of Regimen فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Lowering Blood Pressure Improves Diastolic Function, Regardless of Regimen Reductions in blood pressure lead to improved diastolic function — regardless of the antihypertensive drugs used — reports a study in Lancet. Researchers sought to determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan would be more effective than other antihypertensives at improving diastolic function. They randomized nearly 400 patients with hypertension and evidence of diastolic dysfunction to receive either the ARB or placebo. The patients also received other classes of antihypertensive agents to lower blood pressure to below 135/80 mm Hg. After 38 weeks, tissue Doppler imaging showed improved diastolic function in both valsartan and placebo recipients, but there was no significant difference between the groups. Authors of an accompanying commentary note that valsartan might have an advantage in patients with more advanced left ventricular remodeling. Nevertheless, they add, “the good news is that lowering blood pressure improves diastolic function, irrespective of the antihypertensive regimen used مدال: Stroke Risk Doubles Within 5 Years After Diabetes Diagnosis فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Stroke Risk Doubles Within 5 Years After Diabetes Diagnosis The risk for stroke is twice as high in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes as in the general population, according to a study in Stroke.   Using health databases of a Canadian province, researchers identified some 12,200 adults aged 30 and older with recent diagnoses of type 2 diabetes. During a mean follow-up of about 5 years, 9.1% of the patients had hospital admissions with a stroke-related diagnosis. The rate ratio for stroke was 2.1 for diabetes patients, compared with the general population. The authors write that their results “will help to dispel the notion that macrovascular consequences of diabetes occur only in the long term” and may motivate “both patients and providers to aggressively control cardiovascular risk factors soon after diagnosis.” مدال: Weight Management Program Benefits Overweight Children فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Weight Management Program Benefits Overweight Children A family-based program for weight management in pediatric obesity promotes sustained improvements in BMI and insulin resistance, according to a JAMA report.   Researchers compared the Bright Bodies weight management program with usual care in some 175 overweight children aged 8 through 16 who were attending a pediatric obesity clinic. Children in the intervention group, along with their adult  Icon hamburger menu toggle Menu    Home Books & Journals American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology ISSN: 0002-9378 American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology Editors-in-Chief: Ingrid Nygaard, MD, MS, Roberto Romero, MD, DMedSci View full editorial board Supports Open Access Guide for Authors Author instructions Download the ‘Author Information Pack’ PDF View ‘Guide for Authors’ online Useful links Read the ‘8 Reasons Why I Accepted Your Article’ blog Download the ‘Understanding the Publishing Process’ PDF Submit Your Paper Enter your login details for American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology below. If you do not already have an account you will need to register here.   Username Password  I forgot my password Register new account Track Your Paper Check submitted paper  Username Password  I forgot my password Track accepted paper Once your article has been accepted you will receive an email from Author Services. This email contains a link to check the status of your article. Track your accepted paper  Order Journal Sample Issue View Articles Journal Metrics  Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 1.796ℹSource Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 2014: 1.796 SNIP measures contextual citation impact by weighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field. SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 1.874ℹ SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 2014: 1.874 SJR is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and a qualitative measure of the journal’s impact. Impact Factor: 4.704ℹImpact Factor: 2014: 4.704 The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two preceding years. © Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports 2015 5-Year Impact Factor: 4.142ℹFive-Year Impact Factor: 2014: 4.142 To calculate the five year Impact Factor, citations are counted in 2014 to the previous five years and divided by the source items published in the previous five years. © Journal Citation Reports 2015, Published by Thomson Reuters The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, “The Gray Journal”, covers the full spectrum of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The aim of the Journal is to publish original research (clinical and translational), reviews, opinions, video clips, podcasts and interviews that will have an impact on the understanding of health and disease and that has the potential to change the practice of women's health care. An important focus is the diagnosis, treatment, prediction and prevention of obstetrical and gynecological disorders. The Journal also publishes work on the biology of reproduction, and content which provides insight into the physiology and mechanisms of obstetrical and gynecological diseases.  Benefits to authors We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.  Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission...  View full aims and scope  This journal supports the following content innovations  3D Radiological Data AudioSlides Journal Insights  American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology Journal Insights Find out more Recent Articles  Recently published articles from American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Practice Patterns and Postoperative Complications Before and After Food and Drug Administration Safety Communication on Power Morcellation John A. Harris | Carolyn W. Swenson | … Injectable Silk-based Biomaterials for Cervical Tissue Augmentation: An In Vitro Study Joseph E. Brown | Benjamin P. Partlow | … Reproductive Coercion – Uncloaking an Imbalance of Social Power Jeanna Park | Sherry K. Nordstrom | … View all Special Issues  Special issues published in American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 35th Annual Meeting of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine Volume 212, Issue 1, Supplement (2015) 34th Annual Meeting of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine Volume 210, Issue 1, Supplement (2014) 33rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine Volume 208, Issue 1, Supplement (2013) View all Recent Open Access Articles  The latest Open Access articles published in American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Menstrual preconditioning for the prevention of major obstetrical syndromes in polycystic ovary syndrome Ivo Brosens | Giuseppe Benagiano Monitoring human growth and development: a continuum from the womb to the classroom José Villar | Aris T. Papageorghiou | … Exogenous oxytocin modulates human myometrial microRNAs Joanna R. Cook | David A. MacIntyre | … View all Most Cited Articles  The most cited articles published since 2010, extracted from Scopus. Noninvasive detection of fetal trisomy 21 by sequencing of DNA in maternal blood: A study in a clinical setting Mathias Ehrich | Cosmin Deciu | ... Non-Invasive Chromosomal Evaluation (NICE) Study: Results of a multicenter prospective cohort study for detection of fetal trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 Mary E. Norton | Herb Brar | ... Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: a systematic review Christie A. Lancaster | Katherine J. Gold | ... 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To decline or learn more, visit our Cookies page.   Icon social media facebook  Icon social media linkedin  Icon social media twitter  Icon social media google plus  RELX Group Wordmark caregiver, attended exercise classes twice a week for the first 6 months, and then biweekly for another 6 months. (They also attended behavior modification sessions, although less frequently.) Children in the usual-care group, also accompanied by a caregiver, received diet and exercise counseling at 6-month intervals. At 6 and 12 months, changes in body weight, BMI, percentage of body fat, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance all significantly favored the intervention group. The authors attribute the program’s success, in part, to the frequency of contact between families and staff, but they caution that “the expense incurred in operating such a program is substantial.” مدال: Epilepsy Doubles Suicide Risk فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Epilepsy Doubles Suicide Risk Epilepsy doubles the risk for suicide, according to a large case-control study published early online in Lancet Neurology.   Danish researchers identified some 450,000 people with data in five national health and socioeconomic registries. Even after differences in psychiatric history and socioeconomic status were taken into account, the risk for suicide among patients with epilepsy was twice that of people without epilepsy. Overall, suicide risk was highest among those with both epilepsy and a history of psychiatric disease, particularly affective disorders. In addition, suicide risk was highest in the first 6 months after epilepsy diagnosis and decreased with increasing age, both among those with and those without psychiatric comorbidities.  patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy “require special attention” to identify and treat those at risk for suicide. مدال: Middle Age Not Too Late to Lower Cardiac Risk فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Middle Age Not Too Late to Lower Cardiac Risk Adopting a healthy lifestyle after age 45 may confer cardiovascular and mortality benefits even just 4 years later, according to a study in the July edition of the American Journal of Medicine.   To study the origin and progression of atherosclerosis, researchers prospectively followed roughly 16,000 adults aged 45 to 64 at baseline. After 6 years, about 1000 had newly adopted an overall healthy lifestyle, defined as four behaviors: eating at least five fruits and vegetables daily, exercising at least 2.5 hours weekly, maintaining a BMI between 18.5 and 30, and not smoking. Some 11,000 were following three or fewer of these behaviors. During the next 4 years, those who had newly adopted all four behaviors had a 40% reduction in all-cause mortality and a 35% reduction in cardiovascular events, compared with those who were following three or fewer healthy behaviors. The authors conclude that adhering to a healthy lifestyle is “extremely worthwhile, and that middle-age is not too late to act.” مدال: Self-Monitoring of Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Self-Monitoring of Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Monitoring had only a minimal effect on glucose control and other measur.   Some patients with type 2 diabetes who do not use insulin nevertheless monitor their blood glucose .routinely at home. To determine the effect of self-monitoring, U.K. researchers conducted this randomized trial in patients with reasonably eswell-controlled diabetes who were not taking insulin. A total of 453 adults (mean age, 66) were assigned to one of three groups: (1) usual care without home glucose monitoring; (2) usual care plus home blood glucose monitoring, with instructions to call the doctor for interpretations of results; or (3) the same as group 2 plus additional training in interpreting blood glucose results. At baseline, the mean hemoglobin A1c level was about 7.5%. At 12 months, changes in hemoglobin A1c levels, adjusted for baseline measures, were not significantly different in the three groups. For nearly all other measures (weight, blood pressure, body-mass index), the differences were also not significant. Total cholesterol levels fell significantly more in group 3 than in groups 2 and 1 (by 15.4 mg/dL, vs. 8.5 mg/dL and 6.2 mg/dL). Significantly more mild hypoglycemic episodes occurred in groups 3 and 2 (43 and 33, vs. 14). Comment: These patients with type 2 diabetes had fairly well-controlled blood glucose and were not using insulin. Monitoring blood glucose levels — with or without instruction in interpreting the results — had a minimal effect on glucose control (and on other measures). Based on this study, routine self-monitoring of glucose is unnecessary for such patients. However, for patients with less well-controlled diabetes in whom drug therapies are being adjusted, self-monitoring may have value. مدال: One Soft Drink a Day Raises Risk for Metabolic Syndrome فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر One Soft Drink a Day Raises Risk for Metabolic Syndrome Middle-aged people who drink just one soft drink a day have a substantially increased risk for metabolic syndrome, a Circulation study finds.   The results, from the offspring cohort of the Framingham Heart Study, were released early online. The study found that adults drinking one or more soft drinks a day had a 48% higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than those who drank them infrequently. The incidence of the metabolic syndrome was similarly increased among the cohort over 4 years of follow-up. The study found that both regular and diet soda appear to carry similar metabolic hazards. The authors suggested several possible explanations for the association, including the idea that consuming sweet drinks increases preferences for other sweetened items. They say that lowering the consumption of soft drinks “may be associated with a lowering of the burden of metabolic risk factors in adults.” مدال: Renin Inhibitor + ARB Better Than Either Drug Alone at Lowering BP فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Renin Inhibitor + ARB Better Than Either Drug Alone at Lowering BP A renin inhibitor and an angiotensin receptor blocker are more effective at lowering blood pressure when used in combination than alone, reports a Lancet study, but editorialists question the clinical value of this approach. Industry-funded researchers randomized some 1800 patients with mean resting diastolic BP between 95 and 110 mm HG to receive aliskiren, valsartan, both drugs, or placebo. After 4 weeks, doses were titrated to the maximum. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients receiving either drug had lower resting BP than those on placebo, and patients receiving both drugs had lower BP than those on monotherapy. Ambulatory diastolic BP, measured in some 350 patients, fell to a greater extent with combination therapy (mean reduction, 10.3) than with monotherapy (mean reduction, 7.1). The editorialists discuss the risk for hyperkalemia with these agents and argue that the observed BP reductions are less than what one might expect from combining a renin inhibitor with a diuretic or a calcium-channel blocker, as guidelines recommend. They conclude that “because of the potential life-threatening side-effects … this concept of treatment is unlikely to make it to general practice or even to primary prevention in specialist care.” مدال: Blood Pressure and Glycemic Control Key to Preventing Diabetic Retinopathy فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Blood Pressure and Glycemic Control Key to Preventing Diabetic Retinopathy Strict blood pressure and glycemic control are effective in reducing vision loss from diabetic retinopathy and remain “the cornerstone in the primary prevention” of the disorder, according to a review published in JAMA.   Researchers examined 41 studies with a minimum follow-up of 12 months and 3 meta-analyses. The 10-year Diabetes Control and Complications Trial found that, over 6.5 years of follow-up, intensive glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes reduced the incidence of diabetic retinopathy by 76% and progression by 54%, compared with conventional treatment. Tight blood pressure control had a similar effect, with one U.K. study reporting a 34% reduction in progression after 9 years’ follow-up. مدال: Head and Neck Tumors Seem Associated with HPV فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Head and Neck Tumors Seem Associated with HPV A commentary in Cancer suggests that oropharyngeal cancers associated with human papillomavirus type 16 could be prevented by vaccinating adolescent boys, in addition to girls, against HPV.   The authors point to a “stagnation” in the rate of decline in the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer despite lower tobacco usage. They also cite the younger age at presentation of these cancers and the increasing prevalence of HPV-16 in tumor tissue samples. It’s likely, they say, that the mode of viral transmission to oropharyngeal sites is through oral sex. They are concerned “that vaccination programs limited to females will only delay the potential benefit in prevention of [these] cancers, which typically occur in men.”Maternal Glucose Level Linked to Childhood Obesity Risk فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Maternal Glucose Level Linked to Childhood Obesity Risk As maternal blood glucose level during pregnancy increases, so does the child’s risk for obesity at age 5 to 7 years, reports a study in Diabetes Care.   U.S. researchers examined the medical records of nearly 9500 mother-child pairs. During pregnancy, the women were screened for gestational diabetes. In addition, obesity in the offspring was determined when the child was 5 to 7 years old. Overall, the risk for childhood obesity increased significantly as maternal blood glucose level increased; the association was particularly striking for fasting blood glucose. However, after multivariate adjustment, the obesity risk was not increased among children whose mothers had met criteria for gestational diabetes and were likely treated. The authors say their findings “suggest that [gestational diabetes mellitus] treatment may decrease the risk of childhood obesity and provide an additional reason for screening for GDM in pregnancy.” مدال: Food Additives Associated with Hyperactivity in Children فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Food Additives Associated with Hyperactivity in Children Common food additives may cause hyperactivity in children in the general population, according to a study published online in Lancet. In a randomized crossover trial, 137 three-year-olds and 130 eight- or nine-year-olds consumed daily drinks of placebo, mix A (sodium benzoate and artificial food coloring), or mix B (similar to mix A, but with additional food coloring) for 6 weeks. Hyperactivity was evaluated using teacher and parent ratings, direct observation, and a computerized test. Compared with placebo in adjusted analyses, mix A was associated with elevated hyperactivity scores among three-year-olds, while mix B was associated with elevated scores among eight- or nine-year-olds. The authors write, “These findings show that adverse effects are not just seen in children with extreme hyperactivity (ie, ADHD), but can also be seen in the general population and across the range of severities of hyperactivity.” مدال: Urgent Treatment of TIA or Minor Stroke Cuts Risk for Early Recurrence فروردین ۶, ۱۳۸۹ توسط : admin   موضوع: : (English-news) ارسال نظر Urgent Treatment of TIA or Minor Stroke Cuts Risk for Early Recurrence Urgent treatment after a TIA or minor stroke can reduce the 90-day risk for stroke by 80%, Lancet reports. A study examining stroke outcomes was divided into two phases. In the first, 310 patients presenting to primary care with a TIA or minor stroke were referred to a neurovascular clinic, where patients were assessed and treatment recommendations were faxed to the primary care clinician. In phase 2, about 280 patients were sent directly to the neurovascular clinic, where they received appropriate treatment. The median delay to clinic assessment dropped from 3 days in phase 1 to less than a day in phase 2. Likewise, the median delay to treatment fell from 20 days to 1 day. The incidence of stroke within 90 days also fell significantly — from 10% to 2%. Editorialists conclude that patients with TIA or minor stroke “should receive the same urgent attention as is provided for those with acute coronary syndromes مدال: New birTraining[edit] The training period required to practice medicine as an OB/GYN varies by country. In the United Kingdom, training lasts seven years. In the United States, four years in residency are required for MDs and DOs. In Australia, the residency training period is six years, matched only by neurosurgery and maxillofacial surgery. In India, post graduate training in obstetrics and gynecology is in the form of a two-year diploma course (DGO) or a three-year (MD or MS). Some OB/GYN surgeons elect to do further subspecialty training in programs known as fellowships after completing their residency training, although the majority choose to enter private or academic practice as general OB/GYNs. Fellowship training can range from one to four years in duration, and usually has a research component involved with the clinical and operative training.  All obstetricians are trained gynecologists, although the reverse is not necessarily true. However, some OB/GYNs may choose to drop the obstetric component of their practice and focus solely on gynecology, especially as they get older. This decision is often based on the double burden of very late hours and, depending on the country, high rates of litigation.[citation needed]  This combined training prepares the practicing OB/GYN to be adept at the surgical management of the entire scope of clinical pathology involving female reproductive organs, and to provide care for both pregnant and non-pregnant patient.  Subspecialties[edit] Examples of subspecialty training available to physicians in the US are:  Maternal-fetal medicine – an obstetrical subspecialty, sometimes referred to as perinatology, that focuses on the medical and surgical management of high-risk pregnancies and surgery on the fetus with the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility – a subspecialty that focuses on the biological causes and interventional treatment of infertility Gynaecological oncology – a gynaecologic subspecialty focusing on the medical and surgical treatment of women with cancers of the reproductive organs Female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery – a gynaecologic subspecialty focusing on the diagnosis and surgical treatment of women with urinary incontinence and prolapse of the pelvic organs. Sometimes referred to by laypersons as "female urology" Advanced laparoscopic surgery Family planning – a gynaecologic subspecialty offering training in contraception and pregnancy termination (abortion) Paediatric and adolescent gynaecology Menopausal and geriatric gynaecology Of these, only the first four are truly recognized sub-specialties by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG). The other subspecialties are recognized as informal concentrations of practice. To be recognized as a board-certified subspecialist by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology or the American Osteopathic Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, a practitioner must have completed an ACGME or AOA-accredited residency and obtained a Certificate of Added Qualifications (CAQ) which requires an additional standardized examination.[1][2]  Additionally, physicians of other specialties may become trained in Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO), a short certification that equips them to better manage emergent OB/GYN situations.  Recent shortage in US[edit] From 2000 through 2004, American medical school graduates were increasingly choosing not to specialize in obstetrics.[3] This led to a critical shortage of obstetricians in some states and often fewer health care options for women — although it did not lead to higher average salaries.[4] However, beginning in 2004, increasing state legislation mandating tort reform combined with the ACGME's decision to limit resident work hours led to a gradual resurgence in the number of medical students choosing OB/GYN as a specialty. In the medical residency match for 2007, only six spots in OB/GYN training programmes remained vacant throughout the entire United States; a record low number, and one that puts OB/GYN on par in terms of competitiveness with some other surgical specialties.[5] According to the Association of American Medical Colleges report "The State of Women in Academic Medicine," 83 percent of OB/GYN residents are female.[6]  Salary[edit] The salary of an obstetrician varies by country. In the United States, the salary ranges from $200,000 to $339,738.[citation needed]  Country Annual salary (US$) United Kingdom 187,771[7] United States 226,369 History[edit]  Two midwives assisting a woman in labour on a birth chair in the 16th century, from a work by Eucharius Rößlin. Prior to the 18th century, caring for pregnant women in Europe was confined exclusively to women, and rigorously excluded men. The expectant mother would invite close female friends and family members to her home to keep her company.[8] Skilled midwives managed all aspects of the labour and delivery. The presence of physicians and surgeons was very rare and only occurred once a serious complication had taken place and the midwife had exhausted all measures to manage the complication. Calling a surgeon was very much a last resort and having men deliver women in this era whatsoever was seen as offending female modesty.[9][10]  Before the 18th century[edit] Obstetrics prior to the 18th and 19th centuries was not recognized as a specific specialty. However, the subject matter and interest in the female reproductive system and sexual practice can be traced back to Ancient Egypt[11] Soranus of Ephesus sometimes is called the most important figure in ancient gynecology. Living in the late first century A.D. and early second century he studied anatomy and had opinions and techniques on abortion, contraception –most notably coitus interruptus– and birth complications. After the death of Soranus, techniques and works of gynecology declined but very little of his works were recorded and survived to the late 18th century when gynecology and obstetrics reemerged.[12] and Ancient Greece.[13]  18th century[edit] The 18th century marked the beginning of many advances in European midwifery. These advances in knowledge were mainly regarding the physiology of pregnancy and labour. By the end of the century, medical professionals began to understand the anatomy of the uterus and the physiological changes that take place during labour. The introduction of forceps in childbirth also took place during the 18th century. All these medical advances in obstetrics were a lever for the introduction of men into an arena previously managed and run by women—midwifery.[14]  The addition of the male-midwife is historically a significant change to the profession of obstetrics. In the 18th century medical men began to train in area of childbirth and believed with their advanced knowledge in anatomy that childbirth could be improved. In France these male-midwives were referred to as "accoucheurs". This title was later on lent to male-midwives all over Europe. The founding of lying-hospitals also contributed to the medicalization and male-dominance of obstetrics. These lying-hospitals were establishments where women would come to have their babies delivered, which had prior been unheard of since the midwife normally came to home of the pregnant woman. This institution provided male-midwives or accoucheurs with an endless number of patients to practice their techniques on and also was a way for these men to demonstrate their knowledge.[15]  Many midwives of the time bitterly opposed the involvement of men in childbirth. Some male practitioners also opposed the involvement of medical men like themselves in midwifery, and even went as far as to say that men-midwives only undertook midwifery solely for perverse erotic satisfaction. The accoucheurs argued that their involvement in midwifery was to improve the process of childbirth. These men also believed that obstetrics would forge ahead and continue to strengthen.[9]  19th century[edit] Even 18th century physicians expected that obstetrics would continue to grow, the opposite happened. Obstetrics entered a stage of stagnation in the 19th century, which lasted until about the 1880s.[8] The central explanation for the lack of advancement during this time was substantially due to the rejection of obstetrics by the medical community. The 19th century marked an era of medical reform in Europe and increased regulation over the medical profession. Major European institutions such as The College of Physicians and Surgeons considered delivering babies ungentlemanly work and refused to have anything to do with childbirth as a whole. Even when Medical Act 1858 was introduced, which stated that medical students could qualify as doctors, midwifery was entirely ignored. This made it nearly impossible to pursue an education in midwifery and also have the recognition of being a doctor or surgeon. Obstetrics was pushed to the side.[16]  By the late 19th century the foundation of modern day obstetrics and midwifery began develop. Delivery of babies by doctors became popular and readily accepted, but midwives continued to play a role in childbirth. Midwifery also changed during this era due to increased regulation and the eventual need for midwives to become certified. Many European countries by the late 19th century were monitoring the training of midwives and issued certification based on competency. Midwives were no longer uneducated in the formal sense.[17]  As midwifery began to develop so did the profession of obstetrics near the end of the century. Childbirth was no longer unjustifiably despised by the medical community as it once had been at the beginning of the century. But the specialty was still behind in its development stages in comparison to other medical specialities, and remained a generality in this era. Many male physicians would deliver children but very few would have referred to themselves as obstetricians. The end of the 19th century did mark a significant accomplishment in the profession with the advancements in asepsis and anesthesia, which paved the way for the mainstream introduction and later success of the Caesarean Section.[17][18]  Before the 1880s mortality rates in lying-hospitals would reach unacceptably high levels and became an area of public concern. Much of these maternal deaths were due to Puerperal fever, at the time commonly known as childbed fever. In the 1800s Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis noticed that women giving birth at home had a much lower incidence of childbed fever than those giving birth by physicians in lying-hospitals. His investigation discovered that washing hands with an antiseptic solution before a delivery reduced childbed fever fatalities by 90%.[19] So it was concluded that it was physicians who had been spreading disease from one laboring mother to the next. Despite the publication of this information, doctors still would not wash. It was not until the 20th century when advancements in aseptic technique and the understanding of disease would play a significant role in the decrease of maternal mortality rates among many populations.  History of obstetrics in America[edit] The development of obstetrics as a practice for accredited doctors happened at the turn of the 18th century and thus was very differently developed in Europe and in the Americas due to the independence of many countries in the Americas from European powers. “Unlike in Europe and the British Isles, where midwifery laws were national, in America, midwifery laws were local and varied widely”.[20]  American surgeons are responsible for many of the advancements of Gynecology and Obstetrics –these two fields overlapped greatly as they both gained attention in the medical field– at the end of the nineteenth century through the development of such procedures as the ovariotomy. These procedures then were shared with European surgeons who replicated the surgeries. It should be noted that this was a period when antiseptic, aseptic or anesthetic measures were just being introduced to surgical and observational procedures and without these procedures surgeries were dangerous and often fatal. Following are two surgeons noted for their contributions to these fields include Ephraim McDowell and James Marion Sims.  Ephraim McDowell developed a surgical practice in 1795 and performed the first ovariotomy in 1809 on a 47-year-old widow who then lived on for thirty-one more years. He had attempted to share this with John Bell whom he had practiced under who had retired to Italy. Bell was said to have died without seeing the document but it was published by an associate in Extractions of Diseased Ovaria in 1825. By the mid-century the surgery was both successfully and unsuccessfully being performed. Pennsylvanian surgeons the Attlee brothers made this procedure very routine for a total of 465 surgeries–John Attlee performed 64 successfully of 78 while his brother William reported 387– between the years of 1843 and 1883. By the middle of the nineteenth century this procedure was successfully performed in Europe by English surgeons Sir Spencer Wills and Charles Clay as well as French surgeons Eugène Koeberlé, Augeste Nélation and Jules Peau.[21]  J. Marion Sims was the surgeon responsible for being the first treating a vesicovaginal fistula [21]–a condition linked to many caused mainly by prolonged pressing of the fetus against the pelvis or other causes such as rape, hysterectomy, or other operations– and also having been doctor to many European royals and the 20th President of the United States James A. Garfield after he had been shot. Sims does have a controversial medical past. Under the beliefs at the time about pain and the prejudice towards African people, he had practiced his surgical skills and developed skills on slaves.[22] These women were the first patients of modern gynecology. One of the women he operated on was named Anarcha, the woman he first treated for a fistula.[23]  Historical role of gender[edit] Women and men inhabited very different roles in natal care up to the 18th century. The role of a physician was exclusively held by men who went to university, an overly male institution, who would theorize anatomy and the process of reproduction based on theological teaching and philosophy. Many beliefs about the female body and menstruation in the 17th and 18th centuries were inaccurate; clearly resulting from the lack of literature about the practice.[24] Many of the theories of what caused menstruation prevailed from Hippocratic philosophy.[25] Midwives of this time were those assisted in the birth and care of both born and unborn children, and as the name suggests this position held mainly by women.  During the birth of a child, men were rarely present. Women from the neighborhood or family would join in on the process of birth and assist in many different ways. The one position where men would help with the birth of a child would be in the sitting position, usually when performed on the side of a bed to support the mother.[26]  Men were introduced into the field of obstetrics in the nineteenth century and resulted in a change of the focus of this profession. Gynecology directly resulted as a new and separate field of study from obstetrics and focused on the curing of illness and indispositions of female sexual organs. This had some relevance to some conditions as menopause, uterine and cervical problems, and childbirth could leave the mother in need of extensive surgery to repair tissue. But, there was also a large blame of the uterus for completely unrelated conditions. This led to many social consequences of the nineteenth century.[24]  See also[edit] Theriogenology Andrology Urology Obstetric Hospitalist References[edit] Jump up ^ Welcome to the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology Web Site: Certification of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Jump up ^ "Eligibility/Board Eligibility". American Osteopathic Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2012. Jump up ^ Bower, Amanda, "Today’s Lesson: Switch Specialty." Time. June 9, 2003. Vol. 161, Issue 23, p. 58, 1/2p, 1c. Jump up ^ Physicians' Earnings: Our exclusive survey Jump up ^ NRMP: Selected Data Tables 2006 Jump up ^ Molly Gamble (2014). "10 specialties with the most female residents". Becker's Hospital Review. Retrieved 15 December 2014. Jump up ^ Obstetrician working in United Kingdom, UK Salary, SalaryExpert.com, Retrieved on 2009-03-23 ^ Jump up to: a b Gelis, Jacues. History of Childbirth. Boston: Northern University Press, 1991: 96-98 ^ Jump up to: a b Bynum, W.F., & Porter, Roy, eds. Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine. London and New York: Routledge, 1993: 1050-1051. Jump up ^ Carr, Ian., “University of Manitoba: Women’s Health.” May 2000, accessed May 20, 2012, http://www.neonatology.org/pdf/dyingtohaveababy.pdf Jump up ^ McGrew, Roderick E. Encyclopedia of Medical History. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1985. 122. Jump up ^ McGrew, Roderick E. Encyclopedia of Medical History. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1985. 123. Jump up ^ Hufnagel, Glenda Lewin. A History of Women's Menstruation from Ancient Greece to the Twenty-First Century: Psychological, Social, Medical, Religious, and Educational Issues. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2012. 15. Jump up ^ Bynum, W.F., & Porter, Roy, eds. Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine. London and New York: Routledge, 1993: 1051-1052. Jump up ^ Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood in History and Society, “Obstetrics and Midwifery.” accessed May 21, 2012, http://www.faqs.org/childhood/Me-Pa/Obstetrics-and- Midwifery.html Jump up ^ Bynum, W.F., & Porter, Roy, eds. Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine. London and New York: Routledge, 1993: 1053-1055. ^ Jump up to: a b Drife, J., “The start of life: a history of obstetrics,” Postgraduate Medical Journal 78 (2002): 311-315, accessed May 21, 2012. doi: 10.1136/pmj.78.919.311. Jump up ^ Low, James., “Caesarean section-past and present,” Journal of obstetrics and gynecology Canada 31, no. 12 (2009): 1131-1136, accessed May 20, 2012. http://www.sogc.org/jogc/abstracts/full/200912_Obstetrics_2.pdf Jump up ^ Caplan, Caralee E. (1995). "The Childbed Fever Mystery and the Meaning of Medical Journalism". McGill Journal of Medicine 1 (1). Jump up ^ Roth, Judith. “Pregnancy & Birth: The History of Childbearing Choices in the United States.”Human Service Solutions. Accessed February 14th, 2014. http://www.ourbodiesourselves.org/ ^ Jump up to: a b McGrew, Roderick E. Encyclopedia of Medical History. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1985. 125. Jump up ^ International Wellness Foundation.” Dr. J Marion Sims: The Father of Modern Gynecology.” February 12th, 2014. www.mnwelldir.org/docs/history/biographies/marion_sims.htm Jump up ^ International Wellness Foundation. “Anarcha The Mother of Gynecology.” March 28th, 2014. www.mnwelldir.org/docs/history/biographies/marion_sims.htm ^ Jump up to: a b McGrew, Roderick E. Encyclopedia of Medical History. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1985. 123-125. Jump up ^ Hufnagel, Glenda Lewin. A History of Women's Menstruation from Ancient Greece to the Twenty-First Century: Psychological, Social, Medical, Religious, and Educational Issues. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2012. 16. Jump up ^ Gelis, Jacues. History of Childbirth. Boston: Northern University Press, 1991: 130. Bibliography[edit] Llewellyn-Jones, Derek, Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 7th ed., Mosby, 1999. Further reading[edit] Lane, J (July 1987). "A provincial surgeon and his obstetric practice: Thomas W. Jones of Henley-in-Arden, 1764-1846". Medical History 31 (3): 333–48. doi:10.1017/s0025727300046895. PMC 1139744. PMID 3306222. Stockham, Alice B. Tokology. A Book for Every Woman. o.O., (Kessinger Publishing) o.J. Reprint of Revised Edition Chicago, Alice B. Stockham & Co. 1891 (first edition 1886). ISBN 1-4179-4001-8 External links[edit] [1] International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists World Congress on Controversies in Obstetrics, Gynecology & Infertility (COGI) [show] v t e Medicine [show] v t e Obstetrical surgery and other procedures (ICD-9-CM V3 72–75, ICD-10-PCS 1) Authority control NDL: 00570143 Categories: ObstetricsGynaecologyMedical specialtiesMedical doctors by specialty Navigation menu Create accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditView history  Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version Languages العربیة Español فارسی Français Galego 한국어 မြန်မာဘာသာ 日本語 Norsk bokmål Occitan Português Română Русский ไทย Українська 中文 Edit links This page was last modified on 23 August 2015, at 04:39. 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اگر امکان دارد آن را به فارسی ایمیل کنید Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research - Wiley ... onlinelibrary.wiley.com/.../10.../(ISSN)1447-075... این صفحه را ترجمه کن Journal of Obstetrics an Shibboleth Athens Register Login Home Journals Books Collections Services Subscribe Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Advanced Search   Home All Issues Current Issue Early Online Aims & Scope Editorial Board Instructions for Authors Informa Healthcare Volume 35, Number 4 (May 2015)   Bookmark and Share Access Indicator:     Full access = Full     Partial access = Partial Select an article to: Add to Favourites | Track Citations | Email to a Friend | View Summaries | Download Citation   Select All REVIEW No Access Fertility sparing management and pregnancy in patients with granulosa cell tumour of the ovaries C. Iavazzo , I. D. Gkegkes , N. Vrachnis  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 331–335. Summary | Full Text | PDF (309 KB) | PDF Plus (328 KB)  OBSTETRICS No Access Preparedness of pregnant women for childbirth and the postpartum period: Their knowledge and fear N. Tugut , D. Tirkes , G. Demirel  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 336–340. Summary | Full Text | PDF (130 KB) | PDF Plus (144 KB)  No Access Relationships among acylation-stimulating protein, insulin resistance, lipometabolism, and fetal growth in gestational diabetes mellitus women M. Xu , B. Liu , M-F. Wu , H-T. Chen , K. Cianflone , Z-L. Wang  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 341–345. Summary | Full Text | PDF (172 KB) | PDF Plus (198 KB)  No Access Is induction of labour by Propess® safe? A comparison of midwife-led versus obstetrician-led labour management Y. Bayoglu Tekin , U. Mete Ural , O. Secilmis Kerimoglu , G. Balik , F. Kir Sahin , E. S. Guvendag Guven  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 346–349. Summary | Full Text | PDF (137 KB) | PDF Plus (149 KB)  No Access Peripartum hysterectomy in a tertiary hospital in Western Sydney A. Shamsa , A. Harris , A. Anpalagan  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 350–353. Summary | Full Text | PDF (155 KB) | PDF Plus (175 KB)  No Access Relationship between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI with spontaneous preterm delivery and birth weight F. Sharifzadeh , M. Kashanian , S. Jouhari , N. Sheikhansari  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 354–357. Summary | Full Text | PDF (124 KB) | PDF Plus (140 KB)  No Access Pregnancy outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy R. Madazli , M. A. Yuksel , M. Oncul , A. Tuten , O. Guralp , B. Aydin  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 358–361. Summary | Full Text | PDF (131 KB) | PDF Plus (149 KB)  No Access Labour induction with an intermediate-dose oxytocin regimen has advantages over a high-dose regimen B. G. Manjula , R. Bagga , J. Kalra , S. Dutta  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 362–367. Summary | Full Text | PDF (145 KB) | PDF Plus (166 KB)  No Access Maternal and fetal blood levels of S100 and ischaemia modified albumin in term intrauterine growth restricted fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler values M. Kiseli , G. S. Caglar , A. Y. Gursoy , E. D. Ozdemir , H. Ozdemir , R. T. Seker , S. Demirtas  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 368–371. Summary | Full Text | PDF (179 KB) | PDF Plus (199 KB)  GYNAECOLOGY No Access Undifferentiated uterine carcinoma: Analysis of eighteen cases I. Üreyen , H. Ilgin , T. Turan , T. Taşçi , A. Karalök , N. Boran , A. Özfuttu , G. Tulunay  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 372–376. Summary | Full Text | PDF (132 KB) | PDF Plus (144 KB)  No Access Is quantification of lymphovascular space invasion useful in stage 1B2 cervical carcinomas? J. Scurry , N. F. Hacker , E. Barlow , M. Friedlander , M. Jackson  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 377–381. Summary | Full Text | PDF (779 KB) | PDF Plus (794 KB)  No Access The effect of self-aromatherapy massage of the abdomen on the primary dysmenorrhoea H. Sadeghi Aval Shahr , M. Saadat , M. Kheirkhah , E. Saadat  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 382–385. Summary | Full Text | PDF (130 KB) | PDF Plus (149 KB)  No Access A prospective study to evaluate the role of laparohysteroscopy in unexplained infertility P. Firmal , R. Yadav , S. Agrawal  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 386–388. Summary | Full Text | PDF (119 KB) | PDF Plus (132 KB)  No Access Effect of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms, haematological and hormonal parameters in young women A. El-Lithy , A. El-Mazny , A. Sabbour , A. El-Deeb  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 389–392. Summary | Full Text | PDF (135 KB) | PDF Plus (163 KB)  No Access Female genital cutting: A survey among healthcare professionals in Italy D. Surico , R. Amadori , L. B. Gastaldo , R. Tinelli , N. Surico  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 393–396. Summary | Full Text | PDF (544 KB) | PDF Plus (558 KB)  No Access The association of the microcystic, elongated and fragmented (MELF) invasion pattern in endometrial carcinomas with deep myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space invasion and lymph node metastasis M. Dogan Altunpulluk , G. Kir , C. S. Topal , H. Cetiner , A. Gocmen  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 397–402. Summary | Full Text | PDF (633 KB) | PDF Plus (663 KB)  No Access The impact of the time interval on in-vitro fertilisation success after failure of the first attempt Y. Bayoglu Tekin , S. T. Ceyhan , S. Kilic , C. Korkmaz  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 403–406. Summary | Full Text | PDF (138 KB) | PDF Plus (162 KB)  No Access Effect of home-based Kegel exercises on quality of life in women with stress and mixed urinary incontinence S. Cavkaytar , M. K. Kokanali , H. O. Topcu , O. S. Aksakal , M. Doğanay  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 407–410. Summary | Full Text | PDF (131 KB) | PDF Plus (146 KB)  OBSTETRIC CASE REPORTS No Access Breast cancer in pregnancy – enough vigilance? A. Mehta , H. Staley , A. Saleem , N. Agarwal  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 411–411. | Full Text | PDF (107 KB) | PDF Plus (113 KB)  No Access False vs True rupture of membranes J. S. Cohain  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 412–413. Summary | Full Text | PDF (624 KB) | PDF Plus (632 KB)  No Access Superior mesenteric artery thrombosis: A rare and unknown complication after caesarean section L. Gaujal , E. G. Simon , I. Kellal , A. Bleuzen , F. Perrotin  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 413–414. | Full Text | PDF (2079 KB) | PDF Plus (2088 KB)  No Access Severe visual loss following obstetric forceps delivery-related ocular trauma in a neonate K. Shah , R. Roy , S. Guha , M. Bhargava , S. V. Shah , A. Lobo , D. Das , A. K. Majumder  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 415–415. | Full Text | PDF (926 KB) | PDF Plus (932 KB)  No Access Amniotic embolism with complement activation in a lupic pregnant woman F. F. Campanharo , E. F. M. Santana , E. Araujo Júnior , S. G. P. Sarmento , F. C. Fernandes , S. Y. Sun , R. Mattar , A. F. Moron  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 416–416. | Full Text | PDF (206 KB) | PDF Plus (211 KB)  No Access Placental and infant metastasis of maternal melanoma: A new case S. De Carolis , S. Garofalo , V. A. Degennaro , G. F. Zannoni , S. Salvi , S. Moresi , E. Di Pasquo , G. Scambia  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 417–418. | Full Text | PDF (665 KB) | PDF Plus (678 KB)  GYNAECOLOGY CASE REPORTS No Access Endometriosis associated with relapsing ascites and pleural effusions P. S. Hasdemir , N. Ikiz , H. T. Ozcakir , E. Kara , T. Guvenal  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 419–419. | Full Text | PDF (476 KB) | PDF Plus (480 KB)  No Access Stromal luteoma of the ovary: A rare ovarian pathology C. Numanoglu , S. Guler , I. Ozaydin , A. Han , V. Ulker , O. Akbayir  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 420–421. | Full Text | PDF (1264 KB) | PDF Plus (1271 KB)  No Access Endometrial cancer in a woman with 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis D. McGregor , E. Saridogan , E. Benjamin , A. Swamy , G. S. Conway , A. Olaitan  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 422–422. | Full Text | PDF (444 KB) | PDF Plus (447 KB)  No Access Cellular schwannoma of the retroperitoneum with cystic degeneration, mimicking an ovarian cyst, with CKAE1/AE3 and desmin expression D. Cabibi , F. Aragona , G. Cucinella , C. Tiberio , G. Calagna , A. Perino  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 423–423. | Full Text | PDF (1748 KB) | PDF Plus (1754 KB)  No Access Concomitant therapy with hysterectomy and arterial embolisation for postpartum uterine haemorrhage S. Y. Han , K. H. Ahn , C. H. Lee , S. C. Hong , M. J. Oh , H. J. Kim  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 424–425. | Full Text | PDF (1741 KB) | PDF Plus (1746 KB)  No Access Management of narrow introitus with Fenton's operation followed by successful pregnancy in a woman with repaired bladder exstrophy N. Singh , A. Kriplani , R. Mahey , G Kachhawa  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 426–426. | Full Text | PDF (593 KB) | PDF Plus (597 KB)  No Access Laparoscopic management of a torted dermoid cyst with prostatic tissue in pregnancy S. Das , C. Guha , S. Honakeri , A. Fleming , D. Uchil  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 427–427. | Full Text | PDF (261 KB) | PDF Plus (268 KB)  No Access Unilateral ovarian agenesis with partial ipsilateral tubal agenesis D. Grigoras , L. Pirtea , I. Sas , P. Matusz  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 428–429. | Full Text | PDF (11397 KB) | PDF Plus (11403 KB)  No Access A case of heterotopic pregnancy following spontaneous conception E. Tingi , J. Rowland , L. Hanna  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 430–431. | Full Text | PDF (649 KB) | PDF Plus (655 KB)  OBSTETRIC SHORT COMMUNICATIONS No Access Consumption of beverages and food during labour in diabetic women S. Kalra , B. Kalra , Y. Gupta  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 432–433. | Full Text | PDF (102 KB) | PDF Plus (104 KB)  No Access Clinical significance of adverse outcomes of placental abruption developing at home S. Suzuki  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 433–434. Summary | Full Text | PDF (78 KB) | PDF Plus (81 KB)  LETTER TO THE EDITOR No Access Re: Moore EK, Irvine LM. 2014. The impact of maternal age over forty years on the caesarean section rate: six year experience at a busy district general hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 34:238–240 S. Gerli , A. Favilli , S. Pericoli , G. C. Di Renzo  Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2015, Vol. 35, No. 4: 435–435. | Full Text | PDF (83 KB) | PDF Plus (89 KB) d Gynaecology Research is pleased to announce the following article awardees. Young Scientists Awardee 2011-2012. Antioxidant ... Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology - Wiley Online Library onlinelibrary.wiley.com/.../10.../(ISSN)1469-070... این صفحه را ترجمه کن True Reproducibility of UltraSound Techniques (TRUST): systematic review of reliability studies in obstetrics and gynecology M. A. Coelho Neto, P. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ... www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00029378 این صفحه را ترجمه کن The online version of American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology at ScienceDirect.com, the world's leading platform for high quality peer-reviewed full-text ... Obstetrics/Gynecology - Medscape Reference emedicine.medscape.com/obstetrics_gynecology این صفحه را ترجمه کن Obstetrics and Gynecology articles covering symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, prognosis, and follow-up. Peer reviewed and up-to-date recommendations ... What Is an OB/GYN? - Pregnancy - HealthCommunities.com www.healthcommunities.com/.../what-is-obgyn.sh... این صفحه را ترجمه کن ۲۰ خرداد ۱۳۸۰ ه‍.ش. - Obstetrician / Gynecologist Overview. An obstetrician is a physician who has successfully completed specialized education and training in the ... Journal Rankings on Obstetrics and Gynecology www.scimagojr.com/journalrank.php?category... این صفحه را ترجمه کن 5, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, j, Q1, 1,874, 162, 737 ... 6, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, j, Q1, 1,736, 119 ... Obstetrics and Gynecology International — An Open ... www.hindawi.com/journals/ogi/ این صفحه را ترجمه کن Obstetrics and Gynecology International is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in ... The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada ... sogc.org/ این صفحه را ترجمه کن Not a member? You can still access the abstracts online. Full access to the latest Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada is a benefit of membership. Obstetrics & Gynecology - Editorial Manager® www.editorialmanager.com/ong/ این صفحه را ترجمه کن Obstetrics & Gynecology is the official publication of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Popularly known as "The Green Journal," ... Journal | ISUOG www.isuog.org/journal/ این صفحه را ترجمه کن ISUOG's official journal, Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (UOG), also known as the White Journal, is recognised as the leading peer-reviewed jou